Pinkeye is the most important bovine ocular disease worldwide and a major welfare and economic concern to the Australian cattle industry. Pinkeye can occur in epidemic proportions, but severity and susceptibility vary within and between herds, indicating that the disease is multifactorial.
Shade is a mechanism to reduce heat load providing cattle with an environment supportive of their welfare needs. Although heat stress has been extensively reviewed, researched, and addressed in dairy production systems, it has not been investigated in the same manner in the beef cattle supply chain.
Acceptable methods for the euthanasia of cattle include overdose of an anaesthetic, gunshot and captive bolt. The use of anaesthetics for euthanasia is costly and complicates carcass disposal. These issues can be avoided by use of a physical method such as gunshot or captive bolt; however, each requires that certain […]