Caffeine is commonly used to treat pre-and postnatal injuries, including apnoea in premature infants, as well as neurological impairment caused by hypoxia or asphyxiation often associated with difficult birthing. As an adenosine antagonist, caffeine is metabolised rapidly and transported into many tissues. Caffeine stimulates the brain respiratory centre, improving respiratory […]
The amount of scientific data evaluating sheep pain responses after analgesia treatment is limited. The aims of this study were to compare the efficacy of flunixin meglumine (FLU) and meloxicam (MEL) at relieving post-surgical pain in sheep and to evaluate the utility of the Sheep Grimace Scale (SGS).
The identification and assessment of pain in sheep under field conditions are important, but, due to their stoic nature, are fraught with many challenges. In Australia, various husbandry procedures that are documented to cause pain are routinely performed at lamb marking, including ear tagging, castration, mulesing, and tail docking.
This review provides a scientific comment on the welfare of ruminants slaughtered by ventral-neck incision without stunning. Evidence is derived from studies of calves, sheep and goats. Reference is also made to findings in other mammals including humans. Pain is an inherently subjective experience and only indirect indices are available […]